The aim of these regulations is to define the ethical principles to be implemented in academic activities such as scientific research, publication, research based education, art-related work and all other similar activities carried out at Eastern Mediterranean University and to regulate the principles for the formation, duties, responsibilities and the working principles of the Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Board.
These regulations cover,
(1) Research ethics subjects related with all types of scientific activities carried out by the University community and taking place in the form of scientific research or work and the scientific research-development projects either funded by the University or carried out in units operating within the University;
(2) Matters of publication ethics related with publications either published or submitted for publication in Eastern Mediterranean University’s different types of press or visual and audio press organs or all other press organs outside the University.
(3) Academic ethics subjects relating to lecturers or research person/s and institutions who are currently benefitting or who have applied to benefit from Eastern Mediterranean University’s support;
(4) Basic principles of the research-based education ethics;
(5) Principles for institutional ethics;
(6) The formation, duties and operation methods of the Board of Ethics;
(7) Topics relating to procedures for applying to the Board of Ethics and ethical evaluation.
Applications for any type of theoretical and experimental work carried or to be carried out in areas strictly bound by professional and scientific ethical rules such as Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Engineering, Architecture and Law, including the preliminary permission applications which require the approval of the Board of Ethics, are evaluated in line with the relevant area’s own ethical principles by the sub-committees formed by experts in consultation with the relevant faculties. If deemed necessary, the Board of Ethics may form sub-committees of experts in other areas depending on the application topics. Decisions taken by the sub-committees should receive the approval of the Board of Ethics. Additionally, the sub-committees may recommend that their decisions are communicated to various external professional organization’s board of ethics such as chambers or bar association.
Unless otherwise stated,
Board of Ethics represents Eastern Mediterranean University Board of Ethics,
Rector’s Office represents Eastern Mediterranean University Rectorate,
University refers to the Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU),
University Community represents academic administrators, academic staff members, researchers and students, regardless of their status as full or part-time,
Ethical Misconduct refers to deliberate action against the ethical principles and rules in the scientific research, scientific publication and research- based educational activities taking place within the framework of an academic and scientific institution’s duties, responsibilities and competence.
Ethical Negligence refers to unintentional action against ethical principles and rules in the scientific research, scientific publication and research-based educational activities based on negligence, recklessness, imprudence, ignorance or lack of experience, taking place within the framework of an academic and scientific institution’s duties, responsibilities and competence.
Basic Academic Ethics, Principles and Values
(1) Eastern Mediterranean University acknowledges personal honor, personal identity, and professional dignity of each member of the University community as well as the academic dignity of the academic community and believes that academic ethical principles are the most indispensable chain of values that encompasses the University community. Academic ethical principles are founded on the following five basic values:
(2) The University believes that these principles are validin each and every phase of the scientific and artistic activities of any type (e.g., research, publication, artistic production and presentation), in every context or environment where the University is represented, and in fulfilling other services/activities that are open to public.
Ethical Principles in Science and Arts
Honesty, self-criticisim, objectivity and fairness, openness, scientific scepticism, critical view, openness to new concepts, protection of scientific research discipline, unique and creative thinking, respect for others’ efforts and products, and sensitivity towards the nature and the rights of the living form the basis for Eastern Mediterranean University’s ethics related with science and arts. The application of all types of scientific research, art-related work, and any other related activities encompasses the following principles in the University:
(1) Research Ethics Basic Principles
a. The Principle of Being Scientific: Data is collected through scientific methods. During the phases of the evaluation and interpretation of the data and obtaining theoretical outcomes, the researcher does not deviate from scientific methods or procedures or change the outcomes. The researcher cannot present any research findings that have not been obtained.
b. The Principle of Nonmaleficence: The Act of Respect for “the Living” and Protection of the “Participants” in Scientific Research: The principle of nonmaleficence requires us that no harm is inflicted on the subjects, participants and respondents or natural or cultural assets that are the focus of the artistic activity or research. The participants and respondents should directly be informed of the possible risks and the researcher/s should endeavor to ensure that the decision of participating in the experiment/research is taken independently without coercion as required by the principle of the informed consent. Regarding research involving human data, the participants should be informed on the use, confidentiality and sharing of the data and their consent should be obtained, accordingly.
c. The Principle of Informing and Warning the Public and the Concerned about Applications Containing Possible Risks/Harm: Researchers, artists and officials undertake the responsibility of informing and warning the public about the outcomes and related possible harmful applications of the scientific research and artistic work under discussion.
d. The Principle of Freedom in Research Publication: Researchers have a right, as well as responsibility, to refrain from undertaking or continue undertaking any research or declarations that would, according to their understanding, yield harmful outcomes or involve applications not approved by them. No researcher can be forced to defend, publicly verbalize or declare a specific opinion, thought or action.
e. The Principle of Academic Freedom of Research:Unless a misconduct in the ethical principles specified in these regulations occurs, any attempts of research or artistic work cannot be interfered or prevented. In return, keeping in mind the budgetary application principles of the University and topics which require regional or global sensitivity, researchers and artists act carefully and responsibly in determining their research topics and methods.
f. The Principle of Responsibility towards Society and Humanity: On the condition that intellectual rights and copyright are reserved, scientific research and artistic research are public domains, owned by the public as well as the researchers. Hence, the content of the research and artistic work that are beneficial for the society, humanity and the environment cannot be hidden, altered, distorted or forbidden.
g. Joint and Individual Responsibility Principle:Researchers and artists are responsible for adhering to these principles both individually and jointly. The University community takes the protection of these principles as a basis for its existence.
(2) Basic Principles of Publication Ethics
a. Findings of any scientific research are published with the inclusion of the names of all those researchers who actually carried out the research. Names of those individuals who have not been actively involved in the design, planning, implementation and publication stages of the research are not or cannot be forced to be included in the authors section.
b. In benefitting from research that has never been published or previously published, the source should be indicated in accordance with the scientific publication rules. Apart from universal scientific theories, math theorems and their proofs, neither the translation nor the original version of any scientific work can be published as a whole or partially without getting any approval or citating the main source.
c. Names of the institutions or individuals who provide active support in the research are explicitly referred to in the publications. In this respect, the name of the institution where most of the research has been carried out has to be referred to even if the researcher is no longer a member of it.
FORMATION AND WORKING PRINCIPLES OF THE BOARD OF ETHICS
Formation of the Board of Ethics
(1) The Board of Ethics is formed by the faculty, school and English Preparatory and Foreign Languages School representatives in line with the recommendation of the faculties, schools and, English Preparatory and Foreign Languages School.
a. Only full time academic staff who have no existing proven records of ethical misconduct can apply for the Board membership.
b. Following the Senate’s approval, the members are appointed with formal writing from the relevant Vice Rector.
(2) The period of service for the Board members is 3 years. In the event of a member leaving the Board, a new member who will serve for the remaining period of service of the previous member is appointed through the same method.
(3) Members whose period of service expires can be re-appointed through the same method.
(4) Memberships of those members failing to attend two consecutive meetings annually without submitting any valid excuse are directly terminated.
(5) For memberships which become vacant for any reason, a new member is appointed through the same method within two months.
(6) During the first meeting of the Board of Ethics, members elect a chair, a vice chair and a reporter amongst the Board members.
Responsibilities of the Board of Ethics
Responsibilities of the Board of Ethics are as follows:
Ensuring the ethical appropriateness of the scientific reasearch, either partially or fully supported by Eastern Mediterranean University (including those which have been proposed or finalised) or carried out by the university staff by defining, developing and, if necessary, proposing changes regarding the principles of ethics;
Investigating applications regarding students’, academic staff’s or adminstrative staff’s involvement in types of ethical misconduct specified in this document;
Processing applications of alleged ethical misconduct, if necesary, consulting experts or consultants, corresponding with the relevant authorities, and inquiring and giving information regarding matters either observed or brought to their attention during the monitoring process of the University staff’s research projects which are partially or fully supported by Eastern Mediterranean University (including those which have been proposed or finalised) and regarding publications appearing in or submitted to the University’s scientific journals or other press organs;
Regardless of their relevance with the University, investigating past research projects, publications and other similar activities of those individuals who have applied to benefit from any type of support provided by the University upon the request of the relevant unit or institution and reaching conslusions in terms of the scientific ethics; if deemed necessary, consulting experts, corresponding with relevant people , inquiring and giving information regarding the matter;
Within one month after the finalisation of the investigation, ensuring that the final report, either prepared directly by the Board of Ethics or appointed consultants after the investigation of the relevant files and the analysis of the committee’s or reporters’ reports, is presented to the Rector’s Office; Informing the Rector’s Office in writing about files that have been determined to be out the Board’s scope;
Ensuring that relevant bodies are informed by the Rector’s Office about proven acts violating research and publication ethics;
Submitting proposals to the Rector’s Office regarding the organisation of the educational activities in collaboration with the relevant units, institutions or organisations in eliminating unethical conduct especially to do with academic, research and publication ethics. .
Method of Application to the Board of Ethics
(1) Applications related with ethical misconduct are submitted to the Rector’s Office. The applicants are required to, along with their application, submit concrete information and evidence regarding the allegation to the Rector’s Office. The applications are sent to the Board of Ethics by the Rector’s Office for an investigation.
(2) In the event of the allegations of ethical misconduct taking place via press, electronic methods or other similar communication tools, the Rector’s Office, itself, may ask the Board of Ethics to start an investigation on the relevant misconduct.
(3) Applicants are promptly informed about the procedures to be followed regarding their applications by the body to which the application has been submitted.
(4) Applications with missing signatures are not accepted. However, the Rector’s Office, itself, may ask the Board of Ethics to start an investigation about the applications with missing signatures, but supported by concrete information and evidence.
(5) During the investigation process, the Board of Ethics corresponds with other institutions or organisations via the Rector’s Office.
(1) Applications to the Board of Ethics and any kind of inspection and evaluation process conducted or decisions taken by the Board are kept confidential. No other person apart from the applicant is informed about the subject.
(2) Members of the Ethical Board and sub-committee/s as well as the academic administrators are all bound by the confidentiality principle, even if the subject of the application has been disclosed to public through press and media.
(3) Actions againstthe confidentiality principle is a disciplinary offense. The Rector’s Office reserves the right to initiate the relevant procedures for those engaging in such activity.
Board of Ethics: Method of Operation
(1) The Board of Ethics convenes at least once per academic semester. The Chair informs the Board Members in writing about the meeting date, time, and agenda at least one week before the meeting.
(2) Documents related with the meeting agenda items (if the concerned item is to do with research, samples of the research file) are sent to the members.
(3) Apart from regular meetings, the Board Chair may call an emergency meeting due to the high number of applications or an urgent reason.
(4) The minimum number of members required for the convening and decision making of the Board is the two thirds of the Board members.
(5) The Board of Ethics bases their evaluations on the relevant file/s. If deemed necessary, the person for whom allegations of ethical misconduct has been made is given the right to defend himself/herself. Upon receiving the notification from the Board of Ethics, the subject/s of the investigation should respond within three weeks. Otherwise, s/he will lose the right to defend him/herself and a decision will be taken about him/her based on other information or evidence.
a. After a report has been prepared, a voting process takes place following a discussion session in the Board of Ethics. The final report is signed by the Board members. Members not agreeing with the decision should state reason/s for their objection.
b. The Board of Ethics submits their decisions based on their views and investigation results to the Rector’s Office.
c. In situations involving ethical misconduct or ethical negligence proven by the Board of Ethics, the Rector’s Office initiates administrative and/or legal procedures and starts a disciplinary investigation regarding the issue.
d. The Board of Ethics investigates and evaluates the applications only in terms of ethics. The investigation criteria and recommendations are based on international agreements and declarations, including those specified in Article 4 and 5, and settled ethical principles and rules. In the event of the Board of Ethics dealing with an ethical problem not prescribed in the national or international literature, they may link the problem to a corresponding principle or rule.
e. Individuals or institutions who make allegations of ethical misconduct are informed about the decisions taken about their application by the Rector’s Office through relevant units or institutions.
Investigations or inquiries made or being made by other boards or institutions do not constitute an impediment in the ethical misconduct investigations to be held within the framework of these principles..
a. If deemed necessary, for the investigation of each file, the Board of Ethics may choose to form a a sub-committee consisting of experts with suitable expertise in the area or to benefit from expert/consultant investigation and views.
b. The sub-committee appointed by the Rector’s Office conducts the investigation under strict confidentiality and submits the findings, relevant views and decisions to the Board of Ethics in the form of a preliminary report within two months. If necessary, the Board may also consult the consultants, experts and witnesses who are also required to submit separate reports containing their investigation findings to the Board of Ethics within two months. An additional period of investigation may be granted upon the Board’s consent.
c. Information and documents required by the sub-committee, experts and consultants are provided through the Board of Ethics. If deemed necessary, the Board may propose to the Rector’s Office that experts and consultants are invited to the meeting.
ETHICAL MISCONDUCT AND ETHICAL NEGLIGENCE
Actions Involving Ethical Misconduct or Ethical Negligence
Ethical principles for scientific research form the basis for the evaluation of the applications for actions including “ethical violation” or “ethical negligence”. Additionally, the classification of the actions including “ethical misconduct” or “ethical negligence” in terms of publication ethics takes place in accordance with the following definitions:
a. Piracy: Obtaining someone else’s printed or electronic version of work or applications of art and presenting them under one’s own name without giving appropriate credit;
b. Presenting others’ research findings or ideas and applications simply by using different words or expressions or by changing part of it without giving credit;
c. Submitting or presenting part of someone else’s printed or electronic version of work as your own, without giving any reference as required by academic publication rules;
d. Presenting someone else’s ideas, findings and artistic applications as one’s own, without making any appropriate attributions in a manner that would leave no room for suspicion and that is parallel with the original source or the artistic applications;
e. Failing to present others’ ideas, findings and artistic applications in a manner that would show that they are citations;
f. Failing to provide information regarding the source of the quote or providing partial information regarding the source..
(2) Fabrication: Claiming either to have carried out research which has not been carried out and/or claiming to have obtained results based on research which has not been carried out.
a. Making deliberate or intentional alterations on the methods or findings of research and applications;
b. Presenting research and applications in a different way that would violate the integrity of the research and applications;
c. Making a false claim of using a research material and/or tool that have not been involved in the research;
d. Presenting the research process in a different way than the original, leading to changes in the research process and qualities of the process;
e. Deliberately altering research data and records;
f. Violating the By-law for Ideas and Work of Art.
(4) Duplication: Publishing (or submitting for publication) the same article or its translated version in more than one journal without attributing to the previous versions. However, in case of situations such as the publication content being related with multiple areas of expertise or the publication being beneficial if it is published in a different language, the duplication would be acceptable within the framework of certain rules and regulations. In situations as such, consent of both publisher should be obtained and bibliographic information about the first publication should be provided in the second publication.
(5) Salami Slicing: Publishing the findings of the research in least publishable units within multiple articles although it is possible to publish them in a single article without damaging the unity and the integrity of the research.
(6) Failure to Acknowledge the Supporters/Contributors:Failure to clearly acknowledge the support of any individuals, institutions or establishments in the research.
(7) Ghost Authorship, Fabricating or Falsifying the Author
a. Addition of the names of the person/s who do not have any active contributions to the research and/or publication into the list of authors due to their title or position;
b. Addition of the names of person/s who have not contributed to the research significantly or actively into the list of authors; or the addition of a new author (authors) by giving credit for contributions that would not conform with authorship;
c. Omission of the names of the co-researchers or authors who have significantly contributed to the research and/or article;
d. Changing the order of the authors without any reasons or in an appropriate way;
e. Translating books, articles etc. written in a foreign language and publishing them as one’s own work..
Conditions for Ethical Misconduct or Ethical Negligence
For an event to be considered as “ethical misconduct” or “ethical negligence”, the following conditions should take place:
Ethical Misconduct is an act taking place as a result of deliberate and intentional behavior or serious negligence.
Ethical Negligence is an act taking place due to non-intentional behavior such as carelessness..
The claim shoud be credible and supported by sufficient evidence.
APPEALS AGAINST THE DECISIONS OF THE BOARD OF ETHICS
Appeals against the Decisions of the Board of Ethics
Etik larına İtiraz
Appeals against the decisions of the Board of Ethics or relevant applications may be submitted to the Rector’s Office. Such appeals can be made within 20 working days after the parties have been notified of the decision or the application. The Rector’s Office may send the appeals found to be appropriate or containing new evidence back to the Board of Ethics for further investigation. After the re-evaluation of the case, the decision taken by the Board of Ethics is final.
These regulations are executed by the Rector of Eastern Mediterranean University.
Coming into Force
These regulations are put into force following the date of their approval by the Eastern Mediterranean University Board of Trustees.